SnakeWheel The Wheel of Time Collection
Weaponry and Military Compendium

Wheel of Time -  DROSI [English]  -  DROSI [Deutsch]


    A Compendium of Weaponry and Military Costuming
      of the Wheel of Time

    Copyright (c) 1995, 1996, Paul Postuma

Allow me to contribute my little bit of scholarship:  this first major
revision of the Weaponry of the Wheel of Time contains substantial
additions and some changes, and follows publication of the Crown of
Swords.  The weapons and armor of various lands are covered in detail, as
is the military costuming.  Thanks to those rasfwrj readers who have
contributed their comments on previous versions.

Note that a hypertext (HTML) version of this document is available on the
Web at
Send your comments to

Page references are for the paperback edition, excepting LoC and CoS.

 **  Tam's heron-mark sword  **

The sword was single-edged, slightly curved, and delicate compared to
other swords of the time:

    "The blade, very slightly curved and sharp only on one edge, bore
    another heron etched into the steel.  Short quillons, worked to look
    like braid, flanked the hilt.  It seemed almost fragile compared with
    the swords of the merchants' guards; most of those were double-edged,
    and thick enough to chop down a tree."  <TEotW: 5, 66-7, Winternight>

This makes it likely that the sword is modelled on a Japanese katana or
tachi (very few swords of Western origin have a slightly curved blade,
even fewer of these are two-handed).  The longevity of such blades, and
the exquisite skill required in their forging, also suggests a katana or
tachi as model.  Tam's sword differs from these in that a Western-style
crossguard consisting of short quillons is used rather than an oval
crossguard in the Oriental style.

The "... long, two-handed hilt ..."  <TGH: xxiii, Prologue> is leather-
wrapped, and referred to repeatedly as "nobby."  <i.e. TEotW: 8, 110, A
Place of Safety>

The approximate overall length of his weapon is probably some 37 to 41", a
standard length for two-handed katana or tachi, and for many swords of
Western design.  Any longer than this, and Robert Jordan would no doubt
have described it as such, in comparing it to other swords, and in
describing the reactions Rand's blade elicits from various characters.

Three herons designate the sword as a blade-master's weapon:

    "... a long, leather-wrapped hilt inset with a bronze heron.  Another
    bronze heron stood on the scabbard, and yet another was scribed on
    the sheathed blade."  <TGH: 1, 4, The Flame of Tar Valon>

Only one side of sword or scabbard is marked:  in each mention of the
sword, only three herons are present; when Thom later indicates the two
herons on Rand's coat, Rand comments that "The sword makes five.  Hilt,
scabbard and blade."  <TGH: 26, 387, Discord>  Presumably, each heron is
found on the outward-facing surface of hilt, scabbard and blade.

My guess is that each heron is of the same size, though this isn't
mentioned specifically.  The bronze heron on the hilt is probably some 2
to 2 1/2" in size, with a maximum length of 3" - when the heron-mark is
branded into his palm, a perfect figure is impressed onto.  Rand's a big
boy, but nowhere are his hands described as meathooks, which Jordan would
surely have done.

One can even place the heron on the hilt with some accuracy, if one
assumes Rand is right-handed.  He must be:  a left-handed swordsman cannot
make it through six books without comment.  During his second
confrontation with Ba'alzamon <TGH: 15, 241-5, Kinslayer>, Rand is marked
with a heron on his right palm.  He'd been holding his sword before him,
in both hands.  If right-handed, this would put his right hand above his
left, closer to the crossguard, and thus would place the heron a few
inches from the crossguard, and on the right side of the hilt (the
outward-facing side of the hilt when sheathed).

In the sword form Heron Wading in the Rushes, the sword is " ... held
reversed in both hands over his head ..." <TGH: 44, 617, Five Will Ride
Forth>, that is, with blade pointing down toward the ground as the beak of
a heron hunting for prey.  Rand uses this attack in his first attempt to
kill Ba'alzamon, knowing it will likely cause his own death also <TGH: 47,
666, The Grave Is No Bar to My Call>.  Ingtar predicts the same:  "You
will put your sword in the other man with that ... but not before he has
his through your ribs."  <TGH: 44, 617, Five Will Ride Forth>

This tells us much:  to have the blade reversed, with edge facing one's
opponent now places the left palm over a single heron on the hilt.  Heron
Wading in the Rushes allows for a single forward thrust or stab, moving
the blade from a vertical position through an arc to horizontal.  The
dominant hand would be placed above Rand's non-dominant left, for greater
thrusting power.  This places the left palm next to the crossguard, and
confirms the heron placement cited above.

Curiously, the heron burn would be upside down, an apparent oversight on
Jordan's part.  Twisting the hand to have the heron burn rightside up
leaves the swordsman able to skewer himself, only.

Finally, the scabbard is described as black and apparently was unadorned
except for the heron.  <TEotW: 5, 66, Winternight>

 **  al'Lan Mandragoran  **

Jordan describes the sword of the Malkieri as "... almost a twin of Rand's
except for the lack of herons ..." <TGH: 1, 5, The Flame of Tar Valon>
Like Tam's sword, it was Power-wrought by Aes Sedai, in times far past,
needs no sharpening, and will never rust.  'Nuff said.

Except in settings where he might be recognized as a Warder by his
clothes, he uses these readily:  "... a dark grayish green that would have
faded into leaf or shadow, and his cloak swirled through shades of gray
and green and brown as it shifted in the wind.  It almost seemed to
disappear at times ... fading into whatever lay beyond it ..." <TEotW: 2,
29, Strangers>

Lan dons his matching armor more rarely, a "... gray-green scaled armor
that would make him all but disappear in forest or darkness." <TGH: 9,
147, Leavetakings>  In the Blight, he also wears steel-backed gauntlets,
though this is the only place where these are mentioned for Lan <TEotW:
49, 753, The Dark One Stirs>.

Particular also to Lan is one more outward marker, the ring of the
Malkieri kings, "... a signet ring, heavy gold and worn with age, almost
large enough for both her thumbs to fit through.  On it, a crane flew
above a lance and crown, all carefully wrought in detail." <TGH: 8, 135,
The Dragon Reborn>

 **  Laman's sword  **

Laman's sword would appear to have a blade identical to that of Tam's
sword, including herons, but differs markedly in hilt and scabbard:

    "... the scabbard so encrusted with rubies and moondrops that it was
    hard to see the gold except where a rising sun had been inset.  The
    ivory hilt, long enough for two hands, had another inlaid rising sun
    in gold; the pommel was thick with rubies and moondrops, and still
    more made a solid mass along the quillons.  This had never been made
    to use, only to be seen ... Etched into the shining steel stood a
    heron, symbol of a blademaster."  <TFOH: 21, 388, The Gift of a

Rand discards the too-gaudy scabbard, and the ivory hilt for functional
reasons:  "... that ivory hilt would twist in a hand slippery with sweat
or blood." <TFoH: 21, 388, The Gift of a Blade>  With "... a plain
scabbard of brown boarhide, the long hilt covered in the same leather,
..." <TFoH: 23, 412, "The Fifth, I Give You"> sword and scabbard are
simply and quickly crafted copies of Tam's heron-mark sword.  Herons on
scabbard and hilt are omitted:  when Rand duels Lord Toram, he's given no
outward clues of his blademaster's skill, and as such, Caraline is
surprised when Rand shows such proficiency against Toram.

 **  Perrin's axe  **

This axe consisted of "A broad half-moon blade on one side of the head and
a curved spike on the other ..." <TEotW: 10, 138, Leavetaking>.  "The
ashwood shaft was as long as his arm, and smooth ... to the touch."
<TEotW: 30, 439, Children of Shadow>.  It is likely that it is primarily
intended for single-handed use:  Perrin uses it from his saddle while
standing in the stirrups and moving forward <TEotW: 49, 736, The Dark One
Stirs>, i.e. he'd need the other hand to hold the reins.  At least once,
however, he uses his axe in both hands <TDR: 34, 396, A Different Dance>.

Child Byar, an obvious connoisseur of battle axes, lauds it as
"Excellently balanced ... Plainly made, but by a very good weaponsmith,
perhaps even a master ... Not a villager's weapon, ... nor a farmer's."
<TEotW: 30, 450, Children of the Shadow>

This "great-bladed" <TEotW: 13, 177, Choices> axe is "By weight of metal
... a good five or six pounds lighter than the hammer..."  <TDR: 50, 597,
The Hammer>; more specifically, the ten-pound hammer "weighed more than
twice as much as the axe blade ..."  This axe head, then, weighs some
four to four-and-a-half pounds, including *both* blade and spike.

Such a "... great, steel half-moon" <TGH: xxiii, Prologue> would feature
an 8 to 10" face, likely closer to 10"; larger faces thin the blade
excessively, within the weight restraints given above.  Many of the
larger, two-handed European battle axes had 8 to 9" blade faces, with a
rare 10" face; the smaller battle axes very typically had a 5" face ...
for those who think that a 10-inch blade isn't very big ...

The spike found opposite of the half-blade is described as curved, but
far more commonly is described as thick.  It is likely that the curve
is a slight one; a noticeable curve would have been mentioned in the
axe's description far more frequently.  Perrin, "... with the spike
foremost ... drove the spike into the Trolloc's temple" <TDR: 4, 66,
Shadows Walking>, and instantly kills it; to do so would require at
least the 5 to 6" length standard for such spikes.  An excessive curve
to the spike would've made this maneuver very difficult.

The larger European war axes often sported a 5 to 6" spike opposite the
blade; these were typically slightly curved, or straight.  Very commonly,
the spike was quadrangular in cross-section, occasionally triangular.
Perrin's axe most likely follows this model.

Finally, the ashwood haft is defined as "... a pace long..."  <LoC:
Prologue, 39, The First Message>  Jordan defines his pace as 30" long.
These figures don't really jive with Perrin's axe shaft being as long as
his arm.  A length of 26 to 28" derives from the estimated length of
Perrin's arm, not including his hand; this represents a standard length
for a single-handed battle axe.

Tempted to "put a longer handle on his axe," a handle length of 34 to 36"
is certainly possible, based on the length of Perrin's arm, including
outstretched hand.  Given also that Jordan's foot leans towards 12", a 34
to 36" pace is certainly possible; see Aiel weapons further below.
However, there are other problems with a pace of that length:  it's not
compatible with the cited ranges for the Two Rivers longbow; see below.

An axe handle that length makes for a more unwieldy weapon; Perrin's axe
is easily concealed beneath his cloak, and never described or perceived as
long-handled, unwieldy, or clumsy, though he takes it everywhere.

Obviously, I personally favor an axe handle of some 26 to 28", though good
arguments can be made for 30 through 36" lengths.  Plainly made, and
presumably lacking the simple ornamentation shown on the cover of TDR;
Sweet also lops off the upper tip of the half-moon, but otherwise the TDR
cover axe is probably not that far off.  Go figure.

 **  The ruby-hilted dagger from Shadar Logoth  **

This strongly curved dagger probably closely resembles a Middle Eastern
jambiya; Jordan's description is simple and elegant:

    "A curved dagger with a gold scabbard worked in strange symbols.
    Fine gold wrapped the hilt, which was capped by a ruby as big as
    Rand's thumbnail, and the quillons were golden-scaled serpents
    baring their fangs."  <TGH: 24, 359, Flight Down the Arinelle>

Little information is given in terms of size.  However, even if slid
fully from its sheath, it is small enough that Mat can hide dagger and
scabbard both with his body.  <TGH: 24, 359, Flight Down the Arinelle>
This suggests the dagger's length is at most, say, 12", though this is
hardly certain.

The curve of the weapon is pronounced:  "The bare blade curved like
a horn ..." <TGH: 19, 297, Beneath the Dagger>.  The ruby is repeatedly
referred to as "capping" the hilt, i.e. "... a ruby the size of a pigeon's
egg capping the hilt ..." <TDR: 10, 137, Secrets> which likely places it
atop the very end of the hilt, rather than being set into the side of the
hilt, and is described further as "... dark as a drop of blood..." <TDR:
19, 220, Awakening>  Unfortunately, no more information is provided.

 **  Mat's spear  **

This "... odd black-hafted spear with a short sword blade in place of a
spearpoint, slightly curved and single-edged ..." <TSR: 26, 437, The
Dedicated> follows the design of a basic Western glaive; some such are
richly ornamented and a perfect match for Mat's ashandarei.  Glaives
however can widely vary in appearance; the Japanese naginata has a far
more stereotypical form and is also an excellent match.  To continue:

    "A line of some strange cursive script ran its length, bracketed
    by a pair of birds inlaid on metal even darker than the wood.
    Ravens ... Another pair were engraved on the blade ..." <TSR: 26,
    438, The Dedicated>

The blade itself was 2' in length <TFoH: 3, 113, Pale Shadows>, of black
metal; the raven markings are at the point of the blade <TSR: 37, 606,
Imre Stand>.  The "... iron-hard black haft ..." <TSR: 37, 612, Imre
Stand> could be either round or oval in cross-section; if modelled on the
naginata, it would be oval.

The length of the weapon is unclear:  Mat standing straight has the sword
blade beginning just level with his head <TSR: 26, 439, The Dedicated>.
That is, if the blade starts level with the start of his head, the length
of the weapon is about 82", if level with the top of his head, about 95".
If a length of 20" is assumed for the 2' blade, the overall length becomes
either 78 or 91" respectively.  Either length is typical for a polearm,
though the shorter length seems more likely for a weapon used out of
formation, and is more typical of the Japanese naginata.

 **  The Two Rivers Bow  **

Described as "great" and "stout", <LOC: 54, 677, The Sending; TSR: 42,
684, A Missing Leaf>, the Two Rivers bow was fitted with a bowstring made
of "... tightly wrapped, waxed cords ..." <TSR: 40, 659, Hunter of
Trollocs>, a thin beeswax coating providing some protection against the
elements.  Horn nocks at either end of a long stave may also be typical of
the Two Rivers longbow <TDR: 44, 514, Hunted>.

Rand's bow probably defines the maximum dimensions of such a bow, with a
"... stave two hands taller than he was ...", or 85 to 88" in length.
This is longer than is typical of the Two Rivers, and "... only Lan and
Perrin could draw it."  <TGH: 2, 17, The Welcome>

The Two Rivers longbow is indeed noted for its extraordinary range.  In
the battle for Emond's field, "... a goose-fletched hail streaked the sky
as it arced out, plunged down ..." <TSR: 56, 931, Goldeneyes>; it "...
could kill a man at three hundred paces and more." <LoC: 54, 677, The
Sending>  The bow's draw was unusually heavy; Faile is unable to "... draw
a man's Two River's longbow ..." <TSR: 53, 872, The Price of a Departure>

This correlates perfectly with the Welsh or English longbow, a yew self
bow some 6' long, with a draw weight of 120 to 180 lbs., able to place a
heavy shaft through mail at 200 yards or more, with a maximum recorded
bowshot of just under 400 yards.  Drawn from the chest, it was fired high
into the air, in arcing hails into a mass of opponents, as at Emond's
Field.  It was a weapon of great power and effectiveness; victories at
Agincourt and Crecy are reminiscent of the longbow defense of Emond's

On one occasion, the Emond's Field defenders sink their arrows into the
Trolloc horde at 400 paces <TSR: 56, 931, Goldeneyes>, and 500 paces is
said to be "... a long bowshot ..." <TSR 42, 695, A Missing Leaf>.  This
typical long bowshot nevertheless is longer than any ever recorded with
the English longbow, if Jordan's 30" pace is accurate.  The distances
cited above only fit with a pace of 24 to 26" in length.  Perhaps this
represents a Jordan oversight, perhaps it intentionally exaggerates Two
Rivers archers' ability, or perhaps the pace is a somewhat flexible
measure of distance.

Note also that the Two Rivers bow is never said to be drawn to the chest.
Rand, Perrin and Mat typically draw the bowstring back along the cheek,
towards the ear <TEotW: 49, 736, The Dark One Stirs; TGH: 17, 264,
Choices; TSR: 40, 667, Hunter of Trollocs>.  Perhaps it is drawn back to
the ear for greater accuracy when firing at a single target, to the chest
when aimed, at greater distances, into a mass of opponents, a change
possibly reflected in "... no longer firing in flights but choosing their
targets." <TSR: 44, 720, The Breaking Storm>

Arrows, finally, were tipped with steel double-edged broadhead points,
unbarbed, and fletched with goose feathers tied and glued to the shaft
<TDR: 44, 514, Hunted; TSR: 42, 684, A Missing Leaf; TSR: 44, 719, The
Breaking Storm; TSR: 45, 728, The Tinker's Sword>.  These likely resemble
the 36" cloth-yard shafts used with the English longbow.  "... points like
chisels, designed to drive through Trolloc armor ..." are mentioned
elsewhere <TGH: 17, 264, Choices>; these may be the broadhead points
referred to above.

 **  Throwing daggers  **

Throwing daggers, secreted up sleeves, in boot tops, under coat, etc.,
enjoy great popularity in the WOT.  Thom, Mat, Min, Faile and Dena all
use these weapons, often to great advantage.  While their individual
preferences undoubtedly varied, a number of traits are likely shared.

Of "good steel" <TEotW: 20, 304, Dust on the Wind> and undoubtedly of
quality make, given a great reliance on their accuracy, and consistently
good results in Thom's and Mat's hands.  Balanced for throwing:  thrown
rapidly with a "whip-like motion" to quickly dispatch Trollocs, Maidens,
and mighty morphin' playing cards <TEotW: 20, 304, Dust on the Wind; TSR:
2, 71, Whirlpools in the Pattern; TFoH: 51, 871, News Comes to Cairhien>

Dena insists her daggers "... better have the balance right ..." <TGH:
26, 383, Discord>; with Faile's, "... the balance was just right ..."
<TSR: 14, 245, Customs of Mayene>.  Dena, a performer, would likely be
expected to throw hers; Faile's are also balanced for throwing <TSR: 30,
389, Beyond the Oak>, though she uses them hand-held in the battle for
the Stone, to good effect <TSR: 10, 194, The Stone Stands>

The daggers would have fixed blades, a small or non-existent guard, and
very likely resembled a modern boot knife; I've been unable to locate
historical examples of throwing daggers.  A fairly thin, light hilt seems
probable, as more than one might be carried inside a sleeve <TFoH: 3,
102, Pale Shadows>, yet strong and intended also for gripping, during
hand-held combat.  Blade and hilt would be balanced at the very center
of the dagger, for steady rotation when thrown.

A likely length is about 10", for a weight of some 6 to 9 oz.  Small
enough to be hidden within a forearm sleeve or boot-top; these daggers
would certainly not cross the elbow joint and interfere with joint
function.  For hand-held use, a 4" hilt seems a bare minimum, and 5"
not inappropriate; given that these daggers are enough to give Trollocs
pause, a blade length of 5 to 6" also is likely.

One Jordan inaccuracy should be explored:  skip this section if such are
distressing to you.  Throwing daggers require great skill, and are quite
impractical.  If held at the blade tip, the dagger starts with the hilt
foremost, rotates 180 degrees until the tip points forward, and continues
to rotate until it strikes its target, or lands.  Only for a very small
part of its 360 degree rotation is the tip pointing forward.  Similarly,
if thrown from the hilt, it must complete a 360 rotation before the tip
points forward again.  The dagger moves tip-first only for about 1/20th
part of its overall flight!

Distances at which any given blade completes a half turn, a full turn,
a turn-and-a-half, etc., are relatively fixed, though can be influenced by
grip, stance, and whether it is thrown from blade tip or hilt.  Thus, a
throwing dagger is only effective at fixed distances; it usually travels
some seven to twelve feet before the dagger first points forward.  The
thrower must accurately estimate this distance within inches! and within
the split-seconds available during the melee of an encounter, or forfeit
the opportunity.  With moving targets, or throwing off a horse, it is
impossible to accurately make the throw.

Jordan shows no awareness of these problems, and probably assumes a
simple, horizontal flight trajectory for these weapons, or assumes that
the thrower can accurately vary the rotation of the blade, and place the
blade tip into the target regardless of the distance.  The former is not
true, and the latter requires such great skill that it, also, is virtually

 **  Aiel weapons  **

The Aiel carry simple weapons, plain and unadorned, with deadly
functionality.  Rather than describing each individually, it seems best
to describe them in relation to each other, and to their bearers, or
specifically Urien, of the Reyn Aiel:

    "... a tall man, with skin dark from the sun and red hair cut short
    except for a tail in the back that hung to his shoulders.  From his
    soft, laced knee-high boots to the cloth wrapped loosely around his
    neck, his clothes were all in shades of brown and gray that would
    blend into rock or earth.  The end of a short horn bow peeked over
    his shoulder, and a quiver bristled with arrows at his belt at one
    side.  A long knife hung at the other.  In his left hand he gripped
    a round hide buckler and three short spears, no more than half as
    long as he was tall, with points fully as long as those of the
    Shienaran lances." <TGH: 28, 408, A New Thread in the Pattern>

When Morin becomes the first Maiden, a standard spear is shortened,
"... leaving four feet, counting nearly a foot of steel point ..." <TSR:
25, 414, The Road to the Spear>; it becomes the Aiel's most important
weapon.  The point is twice again described as a full foot long <TSR: 37,
604, Imre Stand; TSR: 50, 818, Traps>.  It is neither black nor brightly
polished, but "... dull so they hardly caught the faint light of the moon
at all ..." <TDR: 54, 631, Into the Stone>

As mentioned, Jordan defines his WOT foot as 10" in length.  This does
not jive:  Aiel spearpoints are long enough to stick out of either end of
an adult victim's chest <TSR: 3, 93, Reflection>.  He presumably uses WOT
and real-world feet interchangeably, given that 12" is a bare minimum for
this generalization.  The point must be some 12" in length:  much
shorter, and it can't span the chest of an average adult; not longer,
given that Jordan's foot is certainly not longer than 12".

Urien's spearpoint, referred to above, is an oddity, with the two foot
length of the Shienaran lances.  It is possible that Urien personally
preferred a two-foot spearpoint, but this is improbable given that Urien's
spear was no more than half his height, that is, likely some 3' to 3' 6"
in length.  A two-foot point is quite disproportionately long.  One must
assume that Jordan ignored or abandoned the length he previously assigned
the Shienaran lance.

Men and Maidens alike carry a pointed, "... long heavy-bladed knife ..."
<LOC: 1, 66, Lion on the Hill; TDR: 38, 433, Maidens of the Spear, and
many other references> at their sides, the other dominant weapon in the
dance of the spears.  "A foot or more of steel, it was almost a
short-sword ..." <ACoS: 7, 145, Pitfalls and Tripwires>

Though many types of knives could legitimately serve as model, I favor
the scramasax, a heavy-bladed fighting knife of the Vikings, Saxons and
Franks.  As with the scramasax, it is likely that Aiel knives varied from
individual to individual, bladesmith to bladesmith.  Whatever the basic
design, I doubt that any model can be rigidly adhered to.  One I've seen,
with a heavy, inches-wide 12"-long blade and a total length of 18", for me
best represents the Aiel knife.

The Aiel bow was small and carried in a "... worked leather case with 
straps that could hold it on her back."  <TSR: 11, 202, What Lies Hidden>
It was a "... dark, curved bow that had the dull shine of horn ..." <TDR:
38, 433, Maidens of the Spear> and appears to be made entirely of horn,
rather than the horn and wood composite bows that have been so effective
in human history.  Information on size, construction, etc. is
unfortunately lacking in the WOT so far ...

The buckler, made of layers of cured bullhide <TSR: 27, 447, Within the
Ways>, and consistently described as "small" <TDR: 38, 433, Maidens of
the Spear, et al.>, probably matches the smaller bucklers in English
history in size, some 11 to 14" in diameter.  Small indeed:  bucklers as
a whole ranged from only some 11 to 18" in diameter.

Finally, to elaborate on the Aiel warrior's costuming, the cadin'sor,
itself:  Maidens and men alike wear loose breeches tucked into soft
knee-high boots, again in shades of brown, gray and green, and reminiscent
of Warder camouflage attire.  Differences in cut help mark clan, sept and
society.  A black veil, or shoufa, lies loosely about the neck, to be
raised over nose and mouth when ready to do battle, hiding all but the
eyes.  Both men and Maidens wear their hair cut short, with only a narrow
tail reaching down as far as the shoulders <TGH: 35, 506, Stedding Tsofu;
TSR: 3, 92-93, Reflection; TDR: 34, 395, A Different Dance; ACoS: 32,
Prologue; etc.>.

 **  Shienaran lances  **

Little can be said about these weapons, except that they were "... tipped
with two feet of steel ..." <TGH: 9, 145, Leavetakings>, and presumably
unadorned in the usual Shienaran fashion.  Again, given the uncertain
length of a foot, the point could be anywhere from 20 to 24" long.  They
were obviously meant for use by mounted cavalry, as Ingtar's twenty
demonstrate in the pursuit of the stolen Horn of Valere <TGH: 10, 173-82,
The Hunt Begins; 28, 408, A New Thread in the Pattern>.

The term "Shienaran lances" also identifies these warriors themselves
<TGH: 11, 190-1, Glimmers of the Pattern, and elsewhere>.  Instantly
recognizable by " ... their bare heads, shaven except for topknots ... "
<TDR: 1, 32, Waiting> and typically mounted, they "... usually  fought in
armor, man and horse alike ..." <TDR: 1, 35, Waiting>, with "... short
horsebows at the ready ... A two-handed sword hilt stuck up above each
man's shoulder through a slit in his cloak ..." <TDR: 1, 32, Waiting>
Elsewhere also, Shienarans are noted to carry two-handed swords slung on
their backs, as well as daggers at their sides <TGH: 14, 225, Wolfbrother;
TFoH: 39, 610, Encounters in Samara>.

Shienaran battle dress consists of "... plain conical helmets and
plate-and-mail armor ... golden surcoats bore the Black Hawk on the
chest." <TGH: 3, 25, Friends and Enemies; TGH: 9, 145, Leavetakings>; this
armor consists of "... steel mail, with pieces of plate armor ..." <TSR:
42, 852, Need>.  Out of battle, Shienaran warriors may opt for "... light
mail ... under their plain coats ..." <TDR: 1, 35, Waiting>.

The plain conical helmets mentioned above are more than simple cones,
however.  A barred face-guard, a description of eyes that "... peered from
his helmet like twin caves inside another cave ..."  <TGH: 3, 25, Friends
and Enemies> and the statement "The bars of their helmets covered their
faces... " <TGH: 9, 145, Leavetakings> suggest that these conical helmets
extend down far enough cover the cheeks, and that bars cross the gap
between them in a horizontal fashion:  a basinet with bar grill visor may
be a good model for this helmet.

The heavy armoring of the Shienaran extends even to their hands:  those of
officers and ordinary soldiers alike are protected by steel guantlets.
<TGH: 3, 27, Friends and Enemies>.  

 **  Birgitte's bow  **

Birgitte's "gleaming silver bow" <TGH: 47, 660, The Grave Is No Bar To
My Call> is again presumably of a simple curved design, a self bow, but
executed in silver or some material covered in silver.  Silver itself is
far too soft, though perhaps a Power-wrought silver bow could meet her
standards:  "Aligning the Matrix made metals stronger ..." <LOC: 39, 511,
Possibilities>.  Still, the bow is never described as Power-made.  It's
also improbable that she'd find an Aes Sedai-made bow in each of her
lives.  If indeed she has a silver bow each time she's spun out, though
this is likely:  "the stories" consistently mention a silver bow.

Some core material could be covered in silver, though silver plating
would not last under use, unless again the Power is invoked.  Silver wire
wrapping might work.  None of these explanations really satisfy:  Jordan
would likely describe a silver-wrapped, plated or covered bow as such.
Perhaps, in some or all of her lives outside of Tel'Aran'Rhiod, Birgitte
opts for a white-painted bow.

Birgitte has an often-mentioned habit of leaning on her bow:  if she
leans her chin onto the end of the bow, this imposes a maximum length of
about 54" or less.  This presumes an average height, which is likely, as
her height receives no comment in the WOT.  The bow could however be
much shorter, or longer.

With her bow, Birgitte carries silver arrows; "Even the fletchings
appeared to be silver."  <TFoH: 36, 570, A New Name>.  Unless she settles
for painted white arrows out of Tel'Aran'Rhiod, the same dilemma remains:
how are they made?  how could it be made to work?

 **  The Dragon Scepter  **

"A green-and-white tasseled ... two-foot length of spear ... ended as
smoothly as any craftsman could have worked it."  <TFoH: 32, 526, A Short
Spear>  The point was long and sharp, the tassel attached just below the
sharp head, and the short shaft was carved with Dragons <TFoH: 32, 529, A
Short Spear; LoC: 2, 82, A New Arrival>  Of Seanchan origin, and abruptly
sliced off by a closing gateway, the shaft ends abruptly, smoothly, and
likely at an angle:  it's probable that it came arcing in, thrown at
least somewhat from the side.

The colors are odd, but only because Lady Morsa's party, who sent this
spear his way, was carrying spears with green and gold tassels <TFoH: 32,
519, A Short Spear>; perhaps another (minor) Jordan oversight.

 **  Gaidin  **

But for their cloaks, the appearance and weaponry of the Gaidin are as
diverse as the clothing and characters of Aes Sedai themselves:  "No two
wore the same kind of armor or carried the same sort of sword ... One and
all they wore the color-shifting cloak ... first seen on Lan, the cloak
that often seemed to fade into whatever was behind it.  It did not make
for easy watching..." <TGH: 2, 19, The Welcome>.

Even the cloak, however, is not consistently worn by Gaidin:  "Half wore
the cloaks ..." <TGH: 9, 145, Leavetakings>; Lan himself does not wear it
at all times.  The armor Lan occasionally dons, closely matches the
Warder's cloak, and may be commonplace among the Gaidin.  See the
description further above.

While no Warder is mentioned without a sword, and Gaidin training in Tar
Valon focusses heavily on it, a Warder's individual preferences, race and
background might conceivably lead some to opt for another weapon suitable
to close combat.  Tar Valon does indeed offer training in other weapons:
Mat chooses a quarterstaff from amidst a wider selection of these, and of
"... real swords and axes and spears." <TDR: 24, 280, Scouting and

Some Younglings use "... slender lances, ending in a foot-and-a-half of
steel with a cross-guard to prevent the head penetrating too deeply ..."
<LoC: 52, Prologue>; these had been brought from Tar Valon, and would have
been taught by the Gaidin.  In addition to the lances, however, all
carried swords <LoC: 52, Prologue>.

 **  Whitecloaks  **

Long white cloaks marked with an embroidered golden sunburst on the left
breast, over burnished breastplates and mail sleeves (probably part of a
complete mail shirt), and this again over a white undercoat, with swords
at the waist and brightly polished conical helmets, mark the Children of
the Light <TEotW: 15, 222, Strangers and Friends; 30, 447, Children of
Shadow; TGH: 5, 71, The Shadow in Shienar; TDR: 10, 139, Secrets; 34, 395,
A Different Dance; etc.>  Hundredmen, presumably those of higher rank, and
possibly those of lower rank, also wear steel gauntlets into conflict
<TSR: 1, 41, Seeds of Shadow>.

The aforementioned conical helmets are never said to cover the cheeks,
unlike those of the Andoran Queen's Guards, or the Shienaran lances.  One
variation on the breastplate and mail combination exists:  Galad once
appears simply in a shirt of shining mail <TFoH: 16, 309, An Unexpected
Offer>.  I suspect that Galad was simply dressed casually, having left his
breastplate in the tents, however strange the idea of Whitecloaks being
casual about anything.

Indeed, the same conical helmets, and the entire above uniform is shared
by all officers, the Hand of the Light, and the rank and file, differing
only in the insignia on the breast of the cloak.

The cloaks of underofficers are marked with a "silver lightning-flash"
beneath the sunburst <TEotW: 41, 623, Old Friends and New Threats>.
Officers of both the rank and file, and of the Questioners, bear golden
knots of rank on their breast, below the golden sunburst, the number of
knots denoting their rank <TGH 5, 73, The Shadow in Shienar; TDR: 10, 139,
Secrets>.  It is likely that these knots are the golden stars described on
Child Byar's cloak <TEotW: 38, 569, 576, Rescue>.

Lord Captains are denoted by a white-and-gold tabard and white undercoat;
burnished armor is strapped over the undercoat when in the field <TEotW:
30, 446, Children of Shadow; LoC: 47, Prologue>.

The cloak of Lord Captain Commander Pedron Niall, bears a "... sunburst
embroidered across the chest of his white tunic ...", or elsewhere, "...
large on the chest." <TDR: 14, Prologue; TGH: 5, 72, The Shadow in
Shienar>  No knots of rank are mentioned; it appears only this larger-
than-usual sunburst distinguishes the Captain Commander.

To physically mark the Inquisitors of the Hand of the Light, "Behind the
sunburst on the cloak's breast [lies] the scarlet shepherd's crook of the
Hand of the Light ..." <TDR: 18, Prologue>  Except, of course, for the
High Inquisitor, whose cloak is marked only with this shepherd's crook,
and who eschews the sunburst entirely <ACoS: 48, Prologue>.

Typically mounted <TEotW: 30, 444, Children of Shadow; TGH: 5, 71, The
Shadow in Shienar, and numerous other references>, the Children carry long
lances tipped with long steel heads, the sharp steel heads long enough to
go through the chest of a well-muscled blacksmith, or presumably some 16"
in length, at least <TEotW: 30, 444-5, Children of Shadow; TSR: 33, 539, A
New Weave in the Pattern; TSR: 45, 735, The Tinker's Sword>.  Lances are
slid into holders along the saddles as Whitecloak cavalry prepares to
charge <TSR: 45, 738, The Tinker's Sword>.

Some Whitecloaks, however, also carry bows, though it is uncertain whether
this is a weapon used by all the Children <TDR: 10, 139, Secrets>; these
are likely the short horsebows unlimbered at Emond's Field <TSR: 45, 738,
The Tinker's Sword>.  We are also told that Child Byar appropriates
Perrin's axe as his own <TEotW: 38, 568, Rescue>; this appears not to be a
problem, though such flexibility is unusual in the Children of Light,
especially given that other weapons are not mentioned for them, in any
other context.

 **  Seanchan  **

Egeanin offers us the first view of Seanchan military costume; probably
the most detailed such a picture Jordan has painted in the WoT:

    "The helmet looked very much like some monstrous insect's head, with
    thin red plumes like feelers; the wearer seemed to be peering out
    through mandibles.  It was painted and gilded to increase the effect,
    and the rest of the man's armor was also worked with paint and gold.
    Overlapping plates in black and red outlined with gold covered his
    chest and ran down the outsides of his arms and the fronts of his
    thighs.  Even the steel backs of his gauntlets were red and gold.
    Where he did not wear metal, his clothes were dark leather.  The two-
    handed sword on his back, with its curved blade, was scabbarded and
    hilted in black-and-red leather."  <TGH: 29, 421, Seanchan>

The armor of the common Seanchan soldier is an "unrelieved black", in
contrast with that of their officers, except for those that tend the
grolm, as denoted by the addition of "... three eyes painted on the breast
of his armor." <TGH: 34, 491, The Wheel Weaves>  The common soldier's
sword is a "... heavy, curved blade ..." <TGH: 29, 424, Seanchan>, as is
Turak's heron-mark blade <TGH: 45, 636, Blademaster>;
this may well be typical for Seanchan swords.

Elsewhere however, Jordan's description reveals that the common soldier
may also wear something other than black:

    "... men in dark leather, and armor painted green and gold,
    overlapping plates down their chests and the outsides of their arms
    and fronts of their thighs.  Their spears bore green-and-gold
    tassels, their long shields were painted in the same colors, and
    their helmets seemed to be the heads of huge insects, faces peering
    out their mandibles ... One was clearly an officer, lacking spear or
    shield, but with a curved, two-handed sword on his back.  Silver
    outlined the plates of his lacquered armor, and thin green plumes,
    like feelers, heightened the illusion of his painted helmet."  <TFoH:
    32, 519, A Short Spear>

Similarly, gold and black painted armor are worn by common soldiers
elsewhere, differing from their commanding officer in that his armor is
lacquered, not painted, and the helmet carries thin green plumes <ACoS:
26, 424, The Irrevocable Words>.  Use of crossbows is also noted, with
these particular Seanchan <ACoS: 26, 427, The Irrevocable Words>.

There is certainly significant variability in the colors employed by
Seanchans - red and green, with white helmet plumes, are also reported
<TSR: 19, 312, The Wavedancer> - likely to help differentiate the various
Houses.  Separate from all of these, the Deathwatch guard, an elite group
of soldiers, is distinguished by "... black-tasseled spears and
black-lacquered shields ..." <TSR: 1, 44, Seeds of Shadow>

Cavalry carries streamered lances into battle, riding horses or "...
creatures that looked almost like cats the size of horses, but with
lizards' scales rippling bronze beneath their saddles.  Clawed feet ..."
<TGH: 29, 428, Seanchan>, "... fluid grace, ... dark skin ..." further
mark these creatures <TGH: 34, 490, The Wheel Weaves; also ACoS: 39, 620,
Promises to Keep>.

Additionally, they make use of flying creatures, each "... a long body
that seemed thicker than a man was tall; great ribbed wings like a bat's
sweeping down as the creature fell toward the courtyard; a figure, a man
sitting just behind a sinous neck ... [and] trailing a long, thin tail."
<ACoS: 26, 424, The Irrevocable Words>.  Not dragons, it is unclear how
these are used in battle.

 **  Defenders of the Stone of Tear  **

Jordan depicts the Defenders of the Stone of Tear as:

    "... soldiers in breastplates over red coats with wide sleeves ending
    in narrow white cuffs, and rimmed, round helmets with a ridge over
    the top.  Instead of the baggy breeches other men wore, theirs were
    tight, and tucked into knee-high boots." <TDR: 50, 590, The Hammer>

At their waists are swords <TDR: 54, 630, Into the Stone>, though the
spear is the main weapon used against Trollocs invading the Stone <TSR:
10, 188-191, The Stone Stands>.  Gleaming breastplates are matched with
backplates.  Gauntlets are part of the uniform, at least for officers in
the field <TFoH: 30, 496, A Wager>.

Interestingly, elsewhere the breastplates are worn over black-and-gold
coats and breeches <TSR: 10, 190, The Stone Stands; LoC: 4, 96, A Sense of
Humor>, not the red coats mentioned above; also, the plump, puffy sleeves
of these coats are described as striped, again in black and gold <TFoH:
30, 496, A Wager; TFoH: 41, 646, The Craft of Kin Tovere>.

The description of the helmets, above, suggests the morian typically
associated with the Spanish conquistadors.  However, the ridge mentioned
above is only once referred to in other passages <LoC: 4, 97, A Sense of
Humor>, and is conspicuous in its absence in numerous other references -
it is unlikely to have been the prominent comb on the morian.  Similarly,
the helmet's rim is never described further, and as such, probably is
fairly unremarkable.  Presumably, this helmet resembles a toned-down
morian, though this is at best an educated guess.

High-ranking Tairens are distinguished by their "... ornately gilded
cuirasses, and large white plumes attached to the front of their helmets
and the stripes on their sleeves had the glisten of satin..." <TFoH: 30,
496, A Wager>; a mere Captain of the Defenders differs from the rank and
file only in having two short white plumes on his helmet <TSR: 3, 92,

 **  The Queen's Guards of Andor  **

    "Long white collars hung down over their mail and plate, and their
    cloaks and undercoats were red ...  Each man's conical helmet shone
    like silver ...  Thin red streamers fluttered beneath the heads of
    their lances ...  A cage of steel bars masked each face."  <TEotW:
    33, 489, The Dark Waits>

Elsewhere, their cloaks are called "red-and-white" tabards <TEotW: 35,
530, Caemlyn>, or are again described as red coats with long white
collars, though this time, "... beneath shining breastplates." <TDR: 39,
459, Threads in the Pattern>  This is likely an error, corrected again a
few chapters later:  "... long, white collars hanging over their
breastplates." <TDR: 46, 534, A Message Out of the Shadow>

While also, on occasion, red is the only color mentioned <TEotW: 40, 602,
The Web Tightens>, it would appear that both red cloaks and long white
collars cover burnished breastplates, with mail sleeves presumably
protecting the upper arms, as with Whitecloak uniform and armor.  A red
undercoat is worn under the breastplate.  Finally, "... conical helmets
with barred face-guards ..." complete the basic description <LoC: 5, 115,
A Different Dance>; this again likely in the style of a basinet with
barred face guard.

Swords, possibly all with the "slightly curved blade" of Guardsman-
lieutenant Tallanvor's sword <TDR: 46, 537, A Message Out of the Shadow>
and lances appear to be carried by mounted Guards; some of the palace
Guards are armed with bows and broadhead arrows <TEotW: 40, 602, The Web
Tightens; TDR: 45, 523, Caemlyn>.  However, it seems probable that all
Guardsmen carry swords at the waist, as does Tallanvor.  <TFoH: 1, 68,
Fanning the Sparks>

Officers bear knots of gold braid on the shoulders as indicator of rank
<TDR: 45, 523, Caemlyn>; Guardsman-lieutenant Tallanvor has a single knot
of rank. <TDR: 46, 536, A Message Out of the Shadow.>  The cloak of
Captain-General Lord Bryne is no doubt the usual red, though the cuffs are
white and marked with wide golden bands, and the shoulder of the cloak is
adorned with four golden knots <TEotW: 40, 608, The Web Tightens>.

High officers may also wear spurs bearing golden lion-heads <TGH: xviii,
Prologue>, and finally, steel-backed gauntlet at least worn by officers
<TEotW: 34, 518, The Last Village>

 **  Cairhienin  **

    "The shorter Cairhienin wore plain breastplates and helmets like
    bells cut away to expose hard faces ...  Their lances were
    unadorned, though here and there Dobraine's con, a small stiff
    square on a short staff, blue with two white diamonds, marked
    officers or minor lords of House Taborwin."  <LoC: 54, 669, The

Elsewhere, the same helmets are again mentioned; this description fitting
that of the Italian barbute, an elegant, bell-shaped, open-faced helmet of
the 14th and 15th centuries.  The breastplate is ignored in this
reference, but dark coats are mentioned, and again the "... small banners
called con on short staffs harnessed to their backs ..." used to denote
officers in battle <TFoH: 30, 496, A Wager>.

More detail comes from the soldiers lounging in The Nine Rings; though
these had put off their armor and weapons, they were all dressed in a
uniform plain, dark blue coat and breeches, with exception of the officer,
whose blue coat is marked with a single slash of red and yellow across the
chest, from shoulder to shoulder.  He also wears high boots, which
presumably the soldiers do not, with the tops turned down, and carries a
sword into the common room <TGH: 21, 308, The Nine Rings>.

"The soldiers' hair was clipped short, as if it all had been cut under the
same bowl."  This contrasts with their officer, with the front of his head
shaved, but the hair grown long at the back <TGH: 21, 308, The Nine
Rings>.  On departure from the Nine Rings, the officers are noted to wear
steel-backed gauntlets, and gold-worked breastplates over the blue coats;
the soldiers, plain armor and the usual helmets <TGH: 21, 318, The Nine

Lances and pikes appear to be the favoured Cairhienin weapons:  cavalry
carries lances tipped with "... a foot and a half of steel ..." <TFoH: 43,
684, This Place, This Day>, and infantry carries long pikes in "...
thickets of pikes four deep ...", marching in blocks of 200, backed up
with 50 archers or crossbowmen in the rear <TFoH: 43, 690, This Place,
This Day>

 **  Mayener Winged Guards  **

Clad in "... red breastplates and helmets like rimmed pots that covered
the nape of the neck, and their lances bore red streamers." <LoC: 54, 669,
The Sending>  Their commander, Havien Nurelle, has the same "...
red-painted breastplate and helmet ..." though is distinguished from his
troops by "... a single slender red plume." <LoC: 54,669, The Sending>

 **  Ebou Dar, Tylin's guards, and the marriage knife  **

Tarasin palace guards "... wore gilded breastplates over green coats and
baggy white trousers stuffed into dark green boots.  Green cords secured
thick twists of white cloth around glittering golden helmets, with the
long ends hanging down their backs.  Even their halberds and the scabbards
of their daggers and short swords shone with gold." <ACoS: 16, 291, A
Touch on the Cheek>

Officers, or at least the Sword-Lieutenant that escorts Mat into the
palace, wear pointed helmets marked with gold and green cord <ACoS: 16,
292, A Touch on the Cheek>; pointed helmets may well be the norm for
palace guards and regular soldiers alike, if indeed there is any
difference between palace guards and her other soldiers.

Though their costume is likely very similar, little more is revealed about
Tylin's soldiers, in their last desperate fight with the Seanchan:  "...
hundred mounted men swung long-pointed lances down.  They wore baggy white
breeches and green coats, and the gold cords on the officer's helmet
glittered."  <ACoS: 39, 621, Promises to Keep>

Also of interest is the Ebou Dari marriage knife, worn about the neck by
women of marrying age, and readily used by the women that carry them.
Tylin's is typical:  "A collar of woven gold ... supported a white-
sheathed marriage knife hanging hilt-down ... The white sheath meant the
Queen was widowed and did not intend to remarry.  The four pearls and one
firedrop set in the gold-wrapped hilt said she had borne four sons and one
daughter; the white-enameled setting of the firedrop and the red-enameled
of three of the pearls said only one son survived.  All had been at least
sixteen when they died, and died in duels, or the settings would have been

Jordan continues to inform that "... women saw a red or white setting as a
source of pride, whether her stones were pearls and firedrops or colored
glass ... many Ebou Dari women removed the stones of their children past
sixteen who refused a duel ..."  <LoC: 49, 601-3, Leaning on the Knife>

 **  Trollocs  **

Narg first models the Trolloc uniform, with "... black mail ... against
leather trousers, and one of the huge, scythe-curved swords swung at its
side." <TEotW: 5, 69, Winternight>  This mail hangs "... to his knees,
with spikes at wrists and elbows and shoulders ..." <TEotW: 5, 68,
Winternight>.  Other, numerous descriptions concur:  "Black mail and
spikes covered it from shoulders to knees ..." <TDR: 5, 75, Nightmares
Walking; TSR: 10, 187-192, The Stone Stands; many other references>,
though most commonly these spikes are found at shoulders and elbows.

These spikes are physically attached to the mail, as "... spikes
decorating the black mail that hung to their knees."  <TGH: xix,
Prologue>, which would thus have sleeves extending beyond the elbow, for
Narg and probably most Trollocs.   Overall mail length would seem to vary,
in that Narg's trousers are easily visible, yet another Trolloc's
mail-with-spikes reaches to the knees.  The depiction on the cover of
ACoS, surprisingly, depicts this accurately, though the Trolloc seems too
small relative to Rand al'Thor.

Excepting boots for the hoofless, and the black mail noted above, no other
form of armor is mentioned, except for a single helmet, with cutouts that
allowed the Trolloc's own horns to protrude <TFoH: 22, 397, Birdcalls by

Trolloc clan markings consist of metal badges, small enough to fit on
Lan's palm, i.e. "... a blood-red enameled metal trident, from one spiked
shoulder of the Trolloc's shirt of black mail."  <TEotW: 7, 101, Out of
the Woods>.  As to Trolloc weapons:

    "Trolloc weapons are made at forges in the valley called Thakan'dar,
    on the very slopes of Shayol Ghul itself.  Some of them take a taint
    from that place, a stain of evil in the metal."  <TEotW: 8, 108, A
    Place of Safety>

The Takan'dar-made blades of Myrddraal are typically black, though this is
consistently NOT mentioned with Trolloc swords; likely, these are of
uncolored steel.  Thick, massive and curved like a scythe, but with the
point curving forward <TEotW: 5, 76, Winternight, etc.; see also the
references below>, as shown on the cover of ACoS, though the sword as
shown is too small to merit the term massive.

Wildly spiked, massive axes, hooked spears, barbed tridents complete the
description:  "... black-mailed ... oddly spiked axes and hooked spears
and scythelike swords that curved the wrong way." <TSR: 10, 187, The Stone
Stands; see also TDR: 5, 75, Nightmares Walking; TEotW: 5, 69, 85,
Winternight; TSR: 10, 187-192, The Stone Stands; TSR: 56, 930, Goldeneyes;
etc., etc.>.

Greater detail is rare, though one axe is described in some detail:  "...
a long-handled axe, with half a dozen sharp spikes and a flaring blade big
enough to split a tree." <TFoH: 22, 397, Birdcalls by Night>  The shaft of
a spear, elsewhere, is described as wrist-thick <TFoH: 55, 954, The
Threads Burn>.

Trollocs rarely use bows, "... but when they do the arrows are barbed ..."
<TSR 41, 676, Among the Tuatha'an>.  Perrin takes an "... arrow, the size
of a small spear ..." in the Two Rivers campaign; it was shot from a long
curved bow, the haft was black-fletched, and the shaft is described as
"thumb-thick" <TSR: 40, 667, Hunter of Trollocs>.

 **  Myrddraal  **

    "The Fade moved with viperous grace, the serpent illusion heightened
    by the armor of black, overlapping plates that covered its chest."
    <TGH: 6, 90, Dark Prophecy>

Myrddraal, "... armored in black overlapping scales like a snake's ...
night-black cloak hanging still however it darted ...", <TFoH: 22, 397,
Birdcalls by Night> and carrying a "... dead black blade ... dark steel
forged in Thakandar..." <TSR: 10, 188, The Stone Stands>, are described in
no further detail than this.  The armor covers its chest only, the cloak
hangs undisturbed, and the sword appears a simple, straight blade, all of
an unrelieved black. <see also TSR: 40, 668, Hunter of Trollocs>

 ** Estimating Measurements  **

Jordan himself has defined some of the units of measurement in the WOT.
As is clear in various preceding sections, it may be that these measures
are fairly flexible:

     foot       10"
     pace       30"

Furthermore, he defines an almost decimal-based system of measures, with
"Two paces to the span ... A thousand spans to the mile, four miles to the
league ..." <TEotW: 34, 515, The Last Village>, for the following:

     span       60" or 5'
     mile       5000' or 0.95 mile
     league     20000' or 3.8 mile

The size of a hand is uncertain, but would be either the standard 4", or
possibly 5" to fit his near-decimal system.

The heights of Rand, Perrin and Mat are given by Jordan as 6' 5" to 6' 6",
6' 2", and 5' 11" respectively, and are also used to derive estimated