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The Compleat old Tongue

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THE COMPLEAT OLD TONGUE

     A compilation of the documents of me <abergman@-SPAMSCHUTZ-minerva.cis.yale.edu>
BAClubb <Bruce42288@-SPAMSCHUTZ-aol.com>, Mark <mk0349@-SPAMSCHUTZ-pegasus.cc.ucf.edu>, and 
Andrea Leistra <aliestra@-SPAMSCHUTZ-leland.stanford.edu>. Also drawed upon is the 
long letter that Don Harlow <donh@-SPAMSCHUTZ-netcom.com> was nice enough to send. I 
compiled, typed, and edited this document. I did not, however, find most 
of the words.

LINGUISTIC COMMENTARY

     In an attempt to provide a definition for the majority of cases,
certain linguistic assumptions were made that seem to be characteristic
of the majority, although not all, of the Old Tongue statements in the
series. These are assumptions about word order. The first is the
characteristic word order of the sentence: predicate-verb-subject.
Many of the sentences follow this with the notable exception of
"Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin." In my opinion. For more information
on this exception, see the corresponding entry. It has been suggested
that I also assume that the adjective would preced the noun, but there
are numerous examples that seem to contradict this, so I have elected
not to do this. By looking at the cross-referenced phrase, one can
draw one's own conclusions. Many assumptions have also been made based
on the idea that "an", "in" and "en" all seem to indicate pluralization.
One of the major problems with attempting to compile this list is that I
do not believe that Mr. Jordan made an effort to provide a basis for the
Old Tongue until after _The_Eye_of_the_World_. This is evidenced by the
failure of phrases like "Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin" to follow
established word order.

EXCLUSIONS

     After thinking about it, I have decided to not include phrases
from the Language of the Fourth Age, the Ogian Language and the Trolloc
Language.

Key: ? indicates uncertainty 

Words and fragments:

a = /preposition or article/
a'dam = the leash /see "dam"/
a'vron = watcher /see "vron/"
aan = one
aan'allein = one man /see "aan" and "allein"/
aethan ?= shelds /see "aethan dor"/
aiel = dedicated
ailen = ??? /see "ta'maral'ailen"/
ain ?= is /see note 1/
al = /article/
al'cair'rahienallen = Cairhein /See "cair", "rahien" and "allen"/
alcair = the golden
algai'd'siswai ?= the spear fighters /see "gai" and "siswai"/
alantin = brother
aldazar = the eagle /see "dazar"/
aldieb = westwind
algode = cotton
allein = man
allen ?= hill
allende = ??? /see phrase "Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem"/
aman ?= dragon
an = /pluralization/ /see note 2/
angreal = /tool of the power/
aridhol = ??? /a city of the second covenant/
asmodean = ??? /contraction of real name?/
atha ?= person
atha'an ?= peoples /see "atha" and "an", "atha'an miere" and "tuatha'an"/
aven ?= call
avende = tree
avendesora = the Tree of Life
avendoraldera = Cutting/Sapling of Tree of Life
ayende = release/freedom
balthamel = ??? /a Forsaken/
be'lal = ??? /a Forsaken/
bekkar ?= blood
cab ?= free /see note 3/
caba = horse
caba'donde = a horse to ride /see "caba", "donde"/
caba'drin = cavalry/horsemen
caballein = free man /see "cab" and "allein" and note 3/
cadin ?= clothes /see "cadin'sor"/
cadin'sor = working clothes
cair = gold
cal = red
caldazar = red eagle /see "cal" and "dazar"/
calhar = red hand /see "cal" and "har"/
calichniye = welcome
car = chief
car'a'carn = Chief of Chiefs /see "car" and "carn"/
carai = for the honor /or/ honor
carn = chiefs
chalinda = sweet girl
cor = night
corenne = return
cue = heart
cuebiyari = /rel. to heart/ /see "cue" and phrase "valdar cuebiyari"/
cuendillar = heartstone
da = ??? /see phrase "da'es daemar"/
da'shain =  /see note 4 and phrase "da'shain aiel"/
dadaranell = ??? /see phrase "mafal dadaranell"/
daemar = ??? /see phrase "da'es damear"/
daghain = ??? /see phrase "Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar"/
dai = battle /see note 4/
dal = bowl
dam = leash
damane = leashed one /see "dam" and "aan"/
dar = ??? /see phrase "Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem"/
dar = sister
darei = spear
dareis = spear
dazar = eagle
demandred = ??? /a forsaken/
din = brother
do ?= over /a preposition/
doon = ??? /see phrase "seia doon"
domashita ?= warms /see phrase "Ninte calichniye no domashitsa"/
don = ??? /see "gai'don"/
donde ?= to ride /see "caba'donde"/
dor ?= red /see "aethan dor"/
dore ?= dancer /see "n'dore"/
dovie = /rel. to luck/ /see "dovie'andi" and "dovienya"/
dovie'andi ?= dice /see "dovie" and phrase "Dovie'andi se tovya sagain"/
dovienya = luck
drelle = river of
drin = soldiers
duadhe ?= water
duente = ??? /see phrase "Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar"/
e = and
en = /pluralization/ /see "jeade'en", "shae'en m'taal" and note 2/
es = ??? /see phrase "da'es daemar"/
ellisande = rose of the sun 
faile = falcon
far = of
ga ?= is /see phrase "Kodome Calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei"/
gai = battle /See note 4/
gai'don = ??? /see "gai", "tarmon gai'don"/
gai'shain = pledged to peace in battle /see "gai" and note 4/
gaidin = battle brother /warder/ /see "gai" and "din"/
graendal = ??? /a forsaken/
hailene = forerunners
hama = mountain /See phrase "Hama N'dore"/
har = hand
hei = always
in ?= /pluralization/ /see note 2/
inde = no /or/ not /general negation/
isain = is /see note 1/
isainde = isn't /contraction/ /see "isain" and "inde"/
isha ?= betrayer /possibly no 'a'/
ishamael = betrayer of hope /a Forsaken/ /see "isha" and "mael"/
jeade = /contranction of "jenn" and something?/ /see "jeade'en"/
jeade'en = true finder
jenn = truly /or/ true
jhin = ??? /see "so'jhin"/
ji = honor
kardon = green skinned fruit from a leafless spiny plant
kiserai = glory
kodome ?= here /see phrase "Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei"/
lanfear = daughter of the night /a forsaken/
logoth ?= waiting /see phrase "shadar logoth"/
los = forward
m'taal ?= dogs /see phrase "shae'en m'taal"/
ma = /contraction/ /see "ma'vron"/
ma'vron ?= watchers over the sea /contraction/ /see "miere" and "vron"/
machin = ??? /see phrase "machin shin"/
mad = ??? /see "sha'mad"/
mael = hope
mafal = ??? /see phrase "mafal dadaranell"/
mahdi = seeker
mahdi'in = seeker(s) /suffix is pluralization?/
mai = maiden(s)
man = /related to sword or blade/ /see "mandarb", "manshima"/
mandarb = blade
manetheren = mountain home
manetherendrelle = waters of mountain home /see "manetheren" and "drelle"/
manshima ?= sword /see "man", "Suravye ninto manshima taishite"/
maral = ??? /see "ta'maral'ailen"/
marath ?= those who must /see "marath'damane"/
marath'damane = those who must be leashed /see "damane"/
mashadar = the creature in Shadar Logoth /see "shadar"/
mashiara = beloved of heart /or/ a love lost
mesaana = ??? /a forsaken/
mi = my
mia = my
miere = ocean/waves
misain = am /see note 1/
moghedien ?= spider /a forsaken/
mordero = ??? /see phrase "Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar"/
Moridin ?= death /see phrase "Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin"/
muad = foot
muad'drin = /see "muad" and "drin"/
muaghde ?= meat
n'dore ?= dancers /See phrase "hama n'dore"/
nei ?= knife /see phrase "sovin nei"/
ni = ??? /see phrase "Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei"/
niende ?= lost /see phrase "Sa souvraya niende misain ye"/
ninte = your
ninto = your
no = me /first person singular pre-verb direct object pronoun/
oosquai ?= whiskey /or some other alchoholic beverage/
ordeith = wormwood
pas = ??? /see phrase "Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar"/
rahien = dawn
rahvin = ??? /a forsaken/
rhadiem = ??? /see phrase "Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem"/
rhyagelle = those who come home
sa = /superlative prefix/
sa ?= in /see phrase "Sa souvraya niende misain ye"/
sa'angreal = very strong Power channel /see "sa" and "angreal"/
sa'sara = "superlative" dance /see "sa" and "sara"/
sag ?= time /see "sagain"/
sagain = it's time /see "sag", "ain" and "Dovie'andi se tovya sagain"/
sai = /related to power/
saidar = female half of power /see "sai" and "dar"/
saidin = male half of power /see "sai" and "din"/
sam ?= destroyer
sammael = destroyer of hope /a forsaken/ /see "sam" and "mael"/
sara = dance /see "sa'sara"/
se = themselves /reflexive pre-verb pronoun/
seia = ??? /see phrase "seia doon"/
semirhage = ??? /a forsaken/
sene ?= as/like /see phrase "Sene sovya caba'donde ain dovienya"/
serenla = stubborn daughter
sha = ??? /see "sha'mad"/
sha'mad = ??? /see phrase "sha'mad conde"/
shadar = shadow /see phrase "shadar logoth", "mashadar"/
shae ?= dog /see "shae'en"/
shae'en ?= dogs /see phrase "shae'en m'taal"/
shaiel = she who is dedicated /see aiel/
shain ?= peace /see note 4/
shambayan = chamberlain
shan ?= lord
shar = ??? /see "tai'shar"/
shari = /plural of "shar"/
shatayan = chatelaine
shen = band
shoufa = dustveil
siswai = spear
siswai'aman = spear of the dragon /see "siswai" and "aman"/
so = ??? /see "so'jhin"/
so'jhin = /hereditary upper servants of the blood/
sor ?= working /see "cadin'sor"/
sorda = rat
sorei = runner(s)
sovin ?= hands /see phrase "sovin nei"/
souvraya = my own mind /see phrase "Sa souvraya niende misain ye"/
sovya ?= another /see phrase "Sene sovya caba'donde ain dovienya"/
staera = copper scraping stick
sul ?= holder /see "sul'dam"/
sul'dam = leash holder /see "dam"/
suravye = ??? /see phrase "Suravye ninto manshima taishite"/
sursa = chopsticks
t'mat ?= tomato
ta = /rel. to pattern/
ta'maral'ailen = web of destiny /around ta'veren/ /see "ta"/
ta'veren = focal point of pattern /see "ta"/
taal = ??? /see "m'taal"/
tai = ??? /see "tai'shar"/
tai'shar = true blood
tain = /plural of "tai"/
taishite = ??? /see phrase "Suravye ninto manshima taishite"/
tarmon ?= last /see phrase "tarmon gai'don"/
tel'aran'rhiod = world of dreams /or/ unseen world
ter = ??? /see "ter'angreal"/
ter'angreal = director of power /see "angreal"/
ti = to
tia = to
toh = obligation/duty
tovya = roll /probably third person plural reflexive form/
tuatha = /contraction involving "atha"/
tuatha'an = Traveling People /see "tuatha" and "atha'an"/
vadin = bar/barrier
val ?= guard /see "valdar" and "valon"/
valdar = /rel. to "guard"/ /see "val" and phrase "valdar cuebiyari"/
valon ?= guard /see "val" and phrase "tar valon"/
vron = watcher(s)
wansho = builder(s)
ye = I /or/ /exclamatory fragment without meaning/
zemai = maize or corn

Note 1: "Misain", "isain" and "ain" all appear to be forms of the verb "to
be".

Note 2: "An", "in", "on" and "en" all seem to indicate pluralization in
some context or another. It is possible that the "-n" suffix is all that
is really needed.

Note 3: "Caballein", it has been suggested, might be a contraction of
"caba" and "allein" meaning "horseman". The use of it as "free man" would
then be a cultural thing. This would avoid the creation of the new word
"cab" meaning "free".

Note 4: "Dai" and "gai" seem to both mean battle. Also, "Da'shain" and
"Gai'shain" are very much alike. "Shain" seems to mean something along the
lines of "sworn to peace". There is also "Dai Shan" which sounds somewhat
alike but means "Battle Lord". Draw your own conclusions.


Phrases:

aes sedai=servant to/of all
     My guess is that this phrase should probably be translated
     "to all servant". Thus "aes" would probably be a contraction of
     "a" and the word meaning "all". "Sedai" would then mean servant.

aethan dor = red shields
     An aiel warrior society. Possibly the "-n" ending indicates
     that "aethan" means shields, and thus "dor" would be another
     word for "red" in addition to "cal". 

al caldazar = the red eagle
     The sign of Manetheren. "Cal" means "red", and "dalzar" means
     "eagle".

al ellisande = the rose of the sun
     The sign for Aemon's wife, Eldrene. "Ellisande" can probably be
     divided into two words, but I have no idea how.

alcair dal = the golden bowl
     An aiel meeting place. "Cair" means "gold" and "dal" means bowl.

atha'an miere = the sea folk
     Probably literally "people sea" as "miere" means "sea", "atha'an"
     is the pluralization of "atha" meaning "person"

Caballein misain ye = I am a free man
     Probably literally "Free man am I". "Cab" means "free",
     "allein" means "man", "misain" means "am", and "ye" means "I".

Carai an caldazar = For the honor of the red eagle
     "Carai" means "honor", "an" is a preposition in this case, probably
     "of", "cal" means "red" and "dazar" means "eagle".

Carai an ellisande = for the honor of the rose of the sun
     "Carai" means "honor", "an" is a preposition meaning "of" and
     "ellisande" means "the rose of the sun".

cor darei = night spears
     An Aiel warrior society. "Cor" means "night" and "darei" means
     "spears".

da'es daemar = the great game /or/ the game of the houses.
     I have no idea what any of the two to three words in this phrase
     mean.

da'shain aiel = the original name for the aiel
     "Aiel" means dedicated. See note 1 above for interpretation of
     da'shain.

dai shan = battle lord
     "Dai" means "battle", "shan" means lord. See also note 1 above.

do miere a'vron = the watchers over the sea
     Probably literally "over ocean, watchers". "Do" means
     "over", "miere" means "ocean" and "vron" means "watchers".

Dovie'andi se tovya sagain = It's time to roll the dice
     "Dovie" seems to be related to "dovienya" which means "luck".
     Following the normal sentence order, this probably means
     "Dice themselves roll time it is." Thus, "Dovie'andi" means
     "dice", "se" is a relexive pronoun "themselves", "tovya" is
     a conjugation of "to roll", "sag" means "time" and "ain" means
     "is". The only two that cross-reference, however, are "ain" and
     "Dovie'andi".

duadhe mahdi'in = water seekers
     An Aiel warrior society. "Duadhe" means "water" and "mahdi'in" is
     the pluralistaion of "mahdi" which means "seeker".

far aldazar din = brothers of the eagle
     Probably literally "for the eagle, brother". An Aiel warrior
     society. "Far" means "for", "dazar" means "eagle" and "din" means
     "brother".

far dareis mai = maidens of the spear
     Probably literally "for spear, maiden". The Aiel female warrior
     society. "Far" means "for", "darei" means "spear", and "mai" means 
     "maiden".

hama n'dore = mountain dancers
     An Aiel warrior society. I am guessing that the "n" on the second
     word indicates some form of pluralization. Thus, "n'dore" means
     "dancers" and "hama" means "mountain".

Inde muaghde Aes Sedai misain ye = I am no Aes Sedai meat.
     Probably literally "not meat Aes Sedai am I" with the Aes Sedai
     modifying the preceding noun. "Inde" means negation, "muaghde"
     means "meat", "misain" means "am" and "ye" means "I".

jenn aiel = the "true" aiel
     Probably literally "truly dedicated". The name for the "tribe" of
     Aiel who built Rhuidean. "Jenn" means "true" or "truly", and "aiel"
     means "dedicated".

Kiserai ti wansho = glory to the builders
     "Kiserai" means "glory", "ti" means "to" and "wansho" means
     "builders". 

Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei = Here is always a welcome
for Aes Sedai
     Probably literally "Here welcome is for Aes Sedai always". "Kodome"
     probably means "here", "calichniye" means "welcome", "ga" probably
     means "is", "ni" probably means "for" and "hei" means "always".
     This is a phrase from _The_Eye_of_the_World_, so neither the word
     order, nor the words seem to be standard, ie "ga" is not related to
     the "ain" family of "to be" verbs.

Los caba'drin = horsemen/cavalry forward
     "Los" means "forward", "caba" means "horse" and "drin" means
     "soldier"

Los valdar cuebiyari = Heart-guard foward
     "Los" means "forward" and "valdar cuebiyari" means "the heart
     guard".

machin shin = the black wind
     The wind in the ways. No idea on word order.

mafal dadaranell = old name for Fal Dara
     No idea on any word.

Mia ayende, Aes Sedai = release me, Aes Sedai
     Probably literally "my release/freedom, Aes Sedai". "Mia" means
     "my" and "ayende" means "release/freedom".

Mia dovienya nesodhin soende = ???
     Probably literally "My luck ??? ???". If the normal word order
     holds, "nesodhin" is the verb and "soende" is the subject. Mat
     says that this sounded like a "fervent wish".

Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar = ???
     "Cuebiyar" could be related to "cuebiyari" which might be related
     to "heart". See "valdar cuebiyari".

Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem = Footmen prepare to pass
cavalry.
     Probably literally "Foot soldiers to ??? ??? horse soldiers ???"
     "Muad" means "foot", "drin" means "soldier", "tia" means "to" and
     "caba" means "horse"

Ninte calichniye no domashitsa = Your welcome warms me
     Probably literally "Your welcome me warms" with the direct object
     coming before the verb. "Ninte" means "your", "calichniye" means
     "welcome", "no" means "me" and "domashita" means "warms". Again,
     this is a phrase from _The_Eye_of_the_World_, so it does not
     follow the standard word order.

rahien sorei = dawn runners
     An Aiel warrior society. "Rahien" means "dawn" and "sorei" means
     "runners".

Sa souvraya niende misain ye = I am lost in my own mind.
     Probably literally "In my own mind lost am I". "Sa" probably means
     "in", "souvraya" probably means "my own mind", "niende" probably
     means "lost", "misain" means "am" and "ye"means "I".

seia doon = black eyes
     An Aiel warrior society. No idea on word order.

Sene sovya caba'donde ain dovienya = Luck is a horse to ride like any
other.
     Probably literally "As/like another a horse to ride is luck". 
     Thus, "sene" means "as/like", "sovya" means "another", "donde"
     means to ride, "ain" means "is" and "dovienya" means "luck".

sha'mad conde = thunder walkers
     An Aiel warrior society. No idea on word order.

shadar logoth = shadow's waiting
     The present name for Aridhol. "Shadar" probably means "shadow" and
     "logoth" probably means waiting.

shae'en m'taal = stone dogs
     An Aiel warrior society. Because of the plural "en" ending, "shae'en"
     probably means "dogs", and thus, "m'taal" probably means "stone".

shen an calhar = the band of the red hand
     "Shen" means "band", "an" means "of", "cal" means "red" and "har"
     means "hand".

sovin nai = knife hands
     An Aiel warrior society. Because of the plural "in" ending, "sovin"
     probably means "hands" and thus, "nai" probably means "knife".

Suravye ninto manshima taishite = Peace favor your sword
     Probably literally means "??? your sword ???". No idea on the
     unknown word order. "Ninto" means "your" and "manshima" probably
     means "sword" as "man" is also present in "mandarb".

tain shari = true bloods
     An Aiel warrior society. "Tain" is the plural of "tai" and "shari"
     is the plural of "shar". No idea on word order. See also "tai'shar".

tar valon = tower guard
     "Valon" is probably related to "val" which probably means "guard",
     thus "tar" probably means "tower".

tarmon gai'don = last battle
     "Gai" means battle which seems to imply that "tarmon" might mean
     "last", but "last battle" may not be a correct translation.

tia avende alantin = Ogier
     Probably literally "to the trees brother". "Tia" means "to",
     "avende" means "tree" and "alantin" means "brother".

Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin = The grave is no bar to my call.
     The phrase on the Horn of Valere. Probably literally "To my call,
     death isn't bar". "Tia" means "to", "mi" means "my", "aven"
     means "call", "moridin" means "death", "isainde" means "isn't",
     and "vadin" means "bar" or "barrier". Another interpretation of
     this stems from the fact that the above does not conform to the
     fairly standard predicate-verb-subject word order. Under that
     interpretation, this would probably literally be "To my call,
     barrier isn't call" changing the meaning of "Moridin" to "barrier"
     and "vadin" to "death". My personal opinion is that the
     capitalization of "Moridin" indicates that it means "death" as
     there is relatively little reason to capitalize "barrier". This
     is a sentence from _The_Eye_of_the_World_, so the nonstandard
     word can be justified.

valdar cuebiyari = the heart guard
     "Val" probably means "guard" and "cue" means "heart". The
     interesting thing here is that "dar" means "sister". I am not
     sure what to make of this.

There are probably numerous errors in this file as it is based on a
lot of speculation. If you find any, can you please e-mail me at
<abergman@-SPAMSCHUTZ-minerva.cis.yale.edu>.

Thank You

Aaron